Scoliosis Awareness Month

Best Scoliosis Surgeon in Bangalore | Dr.Satish Rudrappa

Abnormal lateral curve of the spine is called Scoliosis. This condition is usually diagnosed at childhood and if not treated, scoliosis can become a lifelong condition. It can cause pain, discomfort, and other physical complications throughout one’s life.

June is the Scoliosis Awareness Month,” and people around the world are raising awareness for this spinal deformity.

In this blog, Dr.Satish Rudrappa, commemorate this awareness month and will try to highlight some basic facts of scoliosis like the cause, treatment, symptoms

So let’s start

“It is a time to gain an understanding of scoliosis, its causes, and treatment options, and continue to generate awareness and provide support those impacted by this condition,” say Dr.Satish Rudrappa, brain and spine surgeon in Bangalore

What Causes Scoliosis?

The primary cause of most scoliosis cases is unknown, while sometimes caused by cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.

Symptoms of Scoliosis

The spine consists of small vertebrae bones stacked on top of one another. A healthy spine should have a natural curve that allows for rotation and bending. In cases of scoliosis, the spine curves to the side, forming a C or S shape. In the most severe cases, scoliosis can cause health complications over time.

If you have a feeling that you or your child may have scoliosis, you may notice the following symptoms:

  • One of the shoulder blades is higher than the other
  • A shoulder blade that sticks out more than the other
  • Usually, there will be an appearance that the head is not centered with the rest of the body
  • Uneven hips or one hip sticking out more than the other
  • A rotated spine
  • Pushed out ribs
  • Difficulty in breathing (Due to a reduced available area for lung expansion)
  • Back pain and discomfort
  • Arms not hanging down straight next to the body
  • When bending forward, the appearance that the two sides of the back are different heights

Scoliosis Treatment Options

Depending on the extremity of spinal curvature, age, cause and severity of the condition the doctor can decide the mode of treatment as non-surgical or surgical treatment

Non-Surgical Treatment Option for Scoliosis

For adolescents, spines with lateral curves measuring over 20 degrees may benefit from a temporary, specially designed back brace. Back brace is worn to keep the curve from worsening as the spine grows and from requiring surgery later in life. Back braces can also help a curve to become smaller over time. The more the brace is worn, the more effective it can become.

Surgical Treatment Options for Scoliosis

Spinal curves greater than 50 degrees sometime may require spinal fusion surgery to improve posture. During the procedure, a surgeon will aim to realign and fuse curved vertebrae to encourage them to heal into a single, solid bone. Thanks to modern advancements in medical technology and tools, spinal fusion surgeries on scoliosis patients can help improve lateral curves significantly.

How to Get Help

For an adult who has not adequately treated scoliosis earlier in life, they should talk to their doctor to understand the extent of your spinal curve. Try to understand what options may be available to you to ease any discomfort. 

If you are a parent and have a feeling that your child is developing scoliosis visit your doctor immediately. Early intervention can help a lot as your doctor can put a plan in place to help protect your child from a worsening condition that could be problematic throughout his or her adult life.

For any query reach contact on +91-9741002020 or Book an appointment with Dr.Satish Rudrappa for Best Scoliosis Surgeon in Bangalore.

Also, refer:


All About Pituitary Adenomas

Best Pituitary Tumor Treatment in Bangalore | Dr. Satish Rudrappa

What is the pituitary?

The pituitary is a small gland, only the size of a pea. Located at the base of the brain, this gland plays a significant role in the proper functioning of several organs. It is called the “master gland” as this small gland controls many vital processes, such as growth, development, and reproduction. It also controls the function of organs, such as the kidneys, breasts, and uterus.

What is a pituitary adenoma?

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor on the pituitary gland. Most pituitary adenomas are not cancerous. and are slow-growing and benign. But it is seen that as they grow bigger, they create a condition commonly known as the mass effect. This effect can put tremendous pressure on nearby nerves that connect the eyes to the brain. If the pituitary adenoma is significant, they can damage healthy cells in the gland leading to a condition known as hypopituitarism.

This condition can cause low blood pressure, changes in sex drive and damage the ability to manage stress in day to day life.

Pituitary adenomas are classified based on their size.

  1. Microadenomas:  Tumours smaller than 1 cm.
  2. Macroadenomas: Tumours bigger than 1 cm.

Some adenomas may release extra hormones into the bloodstream. Non-functioning adenomas do not release hormones.

How common are pituitary adenomas?

Pituitary adenomas that do not cause significant symptoms go undiagnosed. But a study shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 20% of people. Usually, microadenomas are never found. Macroadenomas are about twice in size compared to microadenomas. Pituitary adenomas are found in people who are in their 30s and 40s. Also, women suffer more from this condition than men.

What causes pituitary adenomas?

Even today, we are unable to pinpoint the exact cause of pituitary adenomas. But some studies have shown that adenomas may develop due to DNA changes. ( DNA is the material that makes up our gene ). The DNA changes cause abnormal changes in the pituitary gland cells. These genetic changes could be hereditary. But most often there have been non-heredity changes as well.

What are the symptoms of a pituitary adenoma?

Depending on the type of hormones that get released by the pituitary tumor, patients may experience various symptoms. Some of the conditions that may develop are:

  1. Gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults from too much growth hormone (GH)
  2. Cushing’s disease from too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which triggers the adrenal glands to make steroid hormones
  3. Hyperthyroidism from too much thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Some general symptoms of pituitary adenomas include:

Best Pituitary Tumor Treatment in Bangalore
  • Headaches
  • Vision problems (double vision, vision loss)
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Change in behaviour, including hostility, depression, and anxiety
  • Changes in the sense of smell
  • Nasal drainage
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Infertility
  • Fatigue (extreme tiredness)
  • Unexplained weight gain or loss
  • Achy joints or muscle weakness
  • Early menopause
  • Changes in menstruation cycle

Tests for Pituitary Tumors

Pituitary tumors, especially the ones smaller in size go undiagnosed and are only found when the individual goes for a consultation to a doctor. The tumors are sometimes found while performing other medical tests.

Medical history and physical exam

If the doctor suspects a pituitary gland tumor, then he will take a complete medical history as the first step. The doctor will also examine the patient for signs of the tumor. He may assess for vision problems too. The doctor may also recommend the individual get his vision tested because tumors can damage nerves near the eyes.

  1. Blood and urine tests of hormone levels
  2. Somatotroph 
  3. Corticotroph 
  4. Lactotroph 
  5. Gonadotroph 
  6. Thyrotroph 
  7. Imaging tests
  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

It is the best way to find the tumor. 

  1. Computed tomography (CT) scan
  2. Tests of pituitary tissue samples

The biopsy is one of the effective ways of diagnosing the tumor.

How are pituitary tumors treated?

Treatment for pituitary tumors may include:

  • Surgery 
  • Radiation Therapy 
  • Medicines

Note: The key to defeat pituitary tumors is early diagnosis and treatment. 

To learn more about Pituitary Tumor Treatment or schedule an appointment for Best Pituitary Tumor Treatment in Bangalore, or give us a call at +91 -9741002020


Neurosurgery during Covid-19 Pandemic

Neurosurgery during Covid-19 Pandemic – Dr. Satish Rudrappa.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 a global pandemic.

We all know (in fact in this IT era and with nonstop information bombardment, the knowledge difference between doctors and the non-medical public has narrowed significantly!) that Coronavirus is a respiratory virus. It is spread from person to person by three means.

  • Droplets
  • Fomites
  • Aerosols

Are Neurosurgery surgeries safe during this pandemic?

While this virus and the disease it causes, often referred to as COVID-19, does not appear to affect the brain, spinal cord or peripheral nerves.

Neurological patients are unique from other surgical patients. Most of them suffer from other related medical issues such as mental disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and certain respiratory diseases. Hence the outbreak of the COVID-19 has drastically changed the way Neurosurgeons work.

Risks to be aware of

Any surgery carries a risk of contamination and infection irrespective of the organ being operated upon. However, the risk across specialties is different. For instance, ENT, dental, facio-maxillary, and facial surgeries carry the highest risk for the surgeon as well as the patient because of the proximity of the doctor’s and patient’s faces.

“The nasal and oral passages have demonstrated high viral loads and as such non-emergent procedures that require transgression of the nasal/oral mucosa should be delayed” says Dr.Satish Rudrappa, a neurosurgeon based at Bangalore [Neurosurgery during Covid-19 Pandemic]

Some neurosurgical cases might place surgeons and staff at higher risk of contracting the virus. Specifically, there are concerns that transsphenoidal surgeries (surgery of the brain through the nose) on patients who have the virus have a higher risk of transmission to operating room staff than other surgeries.


Until there is enough data to verify that surgical exposure is safe, restraint is recommended.

In patients who are COVID-19 positive, unless they have a life-threatening emergency, we recommend delay of surgery until recovered. For patients with unknown COVID-19 status, it is recommended they be tested before surgery.

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, is currently believed to spread through respiratory droplets. Currently, antivirals for treatment and vaccines do not exist. Hence it is left to the health care professionals to protect vulnerable patients.

We recommend that elective neurosurgery to be postponed until the COVID-19 pandemic is over. Postoperative follow-up can be done through telemedicine. Patients in the pipeline can be counseled and advised remotely.


What are things to be kept in mind about pituitary tumors and pituitary adenomas answered by Dr. Satish Rudrappa?

What are things to be kept in mind about pituitary tumors and pituitary adenomas answered by Dr. Satish Rudrappa?

Best Neurosurgeon in Whitefield -Bangalore | Dr. Satish Rudrappa

The pituitary disorders due to the tumors are not effectively diagnosed conditions that can bring havoc in the hormones in the body which might result in some of the completely different symptoms which might also include gain in weight, fatigue-feeling, irregular periods and in some cases impotence as well.

On the other hand, pituitary adenomas consists of types of benign tumors that affect the pituitary gland which is present in the brain. These are one of the most common types of tumor that appears in the brain and they make almost 15% of primary brain tumors. Some of the tumors include acromegaly, cushing’s disease and prolactinoma.

Dr. Satish Rudrappa, MBBS, MCh-Neuro Surgeon, Fellow in Spine Surgery, Fellow Microvascular Anaesthomosis, expert neurosurgeon has actually sat down to answer some of the common questions about pituitary tumor.

1. What are the most common symptoms for pituitary adenomas?

It is extremely important to understand that when tumor is present on the pituitary gland, the symptoms might differ from one another depending upon the diagnosis. Headaches, loss of vision or maybe double vision, hormone imbalance which might cause fatigue-feeling, gain of weight, irregular periods and impotence. It can be asymptomatic in some cases.

2. Is brain tumor, pituitary lesion and pituitary tumor are same?

The pituitary tumor is a kind of brain tumor. And pituitary lesions might include cysts and also the inflammatory conditions that can lead to mimic tumors.

3. What pituitary tumor treatment is most recommended?

One particular type of pituitary tumor is prolactinoma (it’s a pituitary adenoma that helps in secreting the hormone prolactin). And this is the most successfully treatment that can be done with the help of medications like cabergoline or other like dopamine agonist.

In other patients where they might have growing tumor especially in the cases of cushing’s disease or acromegaly, or may be some other conditions like central hyperthyroidism, craniopharyngioma and chordoma, surgical resection which is the best.

But we highly recommend doing the endoscopic endonasal surgical removal of the tumor by an expert only. Try considering a neurosurgeon and ENT surgeon.

4. Is going for pituitary tumor surgery safe or dangerous? I am highly concerned about the same.

You have to understand that there are some risks involved with every surgery. The possibility is that some or the other complications are associated with the pituitary tumor surgery. The risks that can be seen are sinus infection, bleeding and hormone imbalance to meningitis, loss of vision, stroke and even death. But the possibility of these risks are merely from 1% to 3% only. So consult a doctor about these symptoms before going for the surgery.

5. How long does the pituitary tumor surgery take?

The typical surgery time for the pituitary tumor takes around 3 hours, but in cases of some complications or complicated surgeries, it can go up to 8-10 hours for the rarest tumors. The doctor would be able to guide you in a better way about the same.

6. How common are pituitary tumors?

It is very common problem but the most difficult part it diagnosis at right time. Usually about one in six people are only diagnosed. However, surgery is not recommended for everyone. Usually 1/10,000 people may require surgery treatment annually

7. How fast do pituitary tumors grow?

The growth of the pituitary tumors is very slow, approximately 1-3mm/year.

8. How often do pituitary tumors grow back?

The reoccurrence rate for most of the pituitary tumor is 10% over 10 years. The reoccurrence usually depends on the tumor type and pathological features. Usually craniopharyngiomas, chordomas and Cushing’s disease will have faster recurrence rates

For any query reach contact on +91-9741002020 or Book an appointment with Dr.Satish Rudrappa for Best Neurosurgeon in Whitefield -Bangalore


Understanding Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Glioblastoma Causes & Treatments: Understanding Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Best Glioblastomas Treatment in Bangalore 

Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme, is an aggressive type of brain cancer. They can occur at any age, but glioblastomas are typically found in older adults. Typically, glioblastomas can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and seizures.


Glioblastomas develop from cells called astrocytes – the glial cells of the central nervous system. Once glioblastomas are diagnosed, they can be difficult to treat. A cure is not always possible, but treatment may slow the progression of cancer and alleviate the worst symptoms. 

What Causes Glioblastomas?

Research suggests that 5 percent of all glioblastomas are caused by hereditary conditions, according to the Indian Cancer Centre, but for the large majority of glioblastomas, the causes are unknown.

Inherited DNA defects, long-term exposure to chemicals and carcinogens, and high-dose exposure to ionizing radiation could all potentially cause glioblastoma, but there are many different potential causes that have yet to be identified.

Treatment for Glioblastomas


As mentioned, treatments for glioblastomas may cure the problem but will often merely slow the spreading of cancer and reduce signs and symptoms. With this in mind, there are a number of treatment options for patients with glioblastomas:

  • Biopsy: It is usually important to obtain a tissue diagnosis to confirm a glioblastoma. Other tumors may look similar but would benefit from different treatments. A biopsy is often a simple procedure that can provide very useful information that can be used to tailor a treatment plan.
  • Surgical Removal: one of the most effective treatments is surgical removal of the glioblastoma. Your neurosurgeon will attempt to remove as much of the tumor as possible, but because these types of tumors grow into the normal brain tissue, a complete removal is not possible. Additional treatment, with the direction of your neurosurgeon, is usually needed after surgery to treat the remaining tumor cells.
  • Radiation Therapy: radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. This may include X-rays or stereotactic radiosurgery and is administered with the patient lying on a table while a high-precision machine targets the cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: In many cases, Temodar, oral chemotherapy, may be taken as a pill after surgery, or other chemotherapy medicines may be administered through a vein. In some cases, thin wafers containing chemotherapy medicine can be placed on the remaining cancer cells during surgery. These wafers dissolve and release the medicine directly.
  • Clinical Trials: studies of new treatments, known as clinical trials, may be an option for some patients with glioblastomas. These are often the last resort, as the side effects of the treatment are often unknown and not all patients are always eligible.

While the treatment of glioblastomas is challenging and a cure is not always possible, there are options available to patients with this diagnosis that can slow the progress of cancer and alleviate the most severe symptoms.

For glioblastomas, treatment may require a combination of the methods listed above. It’s always best to consult with your physician and/or neurosurgeon to determine the best steps to recovery for you.

To learn more, continue reading about glioblastoma surgery and treatment from Brain & Spine Clinic the Best Treatment for Glioblastoma in Bangalore.



Pituitary Adenomas

Pituitary Adenomas Symptoms, Treatment and Surgery

Best Pituitary Adenoma Treatment in Bangalore – Dr. Satish Rudrappa

Defeat cancer with Pituitary Tumor Surgery and Treatment in Bangalore, India with Dr. Satish Rudrappa the renowned and distinguished Senior Neurosurgeon in Bangalore, India who has operated over 17000 cases in the last 28 years. Till date, he has done more than 6200 Minimal Invasive Brain Cases in the last 10 years with a success rate of 99%. Conversion to open surgery was needed in only 2% of cases.

Dr. Satish Rudrappa was the first person in India to perform Image-Guided Brain Surgery. His areas of Expertise in Brain Surgeries are Pituitary Adenoma, Acoustic Schwannoma, Meningioma, Glioma surgery, etc., And also he has successfully treated more than 1300 cases of Pituitary Adenoma with a success rate of 95% by using the latest techniques like Neuroendoscopy, Neuronavigation & Neurosonography.

The pituitary gland is located near the base of the brain. The gland indirectly, through other glands, controls many functions of our bodies. A tumor that has developed in the pituitary gland is called a Pituitary adenoma. The pituitary gland is not technically part of the brain. It is attached to the base of the brain and works in conjunction with parts of the brain like the hypothalamus and affects their functions.

Pituitary adenomas are also not classified under tumors of the brain and central nervous system. Instead, they are categorized as tumors of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for the production and secretion of various hormones into the body’s bloodstream. Pituitary tumors or adenomas are actually quite common; they occur in about 20 percent of the global population and most of them are benign. In most cases, the tumor is harmless and is only detected during routine observations for other conditions. In other cases, however, a pituitary adenoma can become cancerous.

Though a pituitary adenoma is not strictly a brain tumor, the cancerous variety has many similarities with it in terms of symptoms and side effects. It also affects other parts of the brain by growing vertically and putting pressure on nerves.

Symptoms of Pituitary Adenoma

Hormones regulate many important body functions and physical processes. A pituitary adenoma results in an imbalance in hormone production. The tumor either causes over-production of hormones or their under-production.

Results of Over-Production

  • Disruption in the menstrual cycle in women  
  • Lowering of testosterone levels in men and loss of sexual appetite
  • Some adults may suffer from acromegaly, in which the bones increase in size, including those of the hands, feet, and face
  • In children, it occurs as gigantism, which causes growth of hands and feet in spurts
  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Muscle weakness and easy bruising of the skin

Results of Under-Production

  • Reduced hormones also cause loss of sex drive in men
  • Infertility in women
  • Hypothyroidism, which leads to loss of appetite, fatigue and decreased activity of the brain 
  • Adrenal inadequacy, which can cause low blood pressure, electrolyte abnormalities and also fatigue
  • Insufficient growth hormones, which can cause delayed onset of puberty in teenagers and loss of muscle mass in adults

Affecting Other Nerves in the Brain

As with proper brain tumors, the growth of a pituitary adenoma puts pressure on surrounding nerve tissues. When it affects the optic nerve, it can lead to loss of full vision or peripheral vision and other optical problems. A vision test can determine how pressure is being applied to the optic nerve by the growth of the adenoma.

Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas

Treatment can target the symptoms of the tumor-like those associated with hormonal imbalance by simple medication, usually by a neuro-endocrinologist to stabilize hormone levels. In extreme cases, malicious growth would have to be reduced or removed with non-invasive surgery. Stereotactic surgery is a form of radiotherapy, which can be an effective surgical intervention for pituitary adenoma.

To learn more about Pituitary Adenoma or schedule an appointment for Best Pituitary Adenoma Treatment in Bangalore, or give us a call at +91 -9741002020 or check out our facebook page.